Before knowing where does protein synthesis take place, it is important to know what protein synthesis is.
So, What is Protein Synthesis?
If we need to describe ¨protein synthesis¨ in the simplest of terms, it is the formation of proteins from the amino acid. During the process, biological cells help in the production of new proteins.
Process of Protein Synthesis
There are primarily two steps of Protein Synthesis and they are transcription and translation. Without getting into details, we will attempt to explain the processes to the best of our abilities in the simplest of terms.
- Transcription. In this process, a section of DNA starts unwinding. mRNA is therefore, produced as a copy of the DNA base sequence. After the production of the mRNA, it leaves the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
- Translation. After leaving the nucleus, the mRNA sets on its journey to attach itself to a ribosome in the cytoplasm. During the time, tRNA also contributes to the process, bringing a specific amino acid to the ribosome. There, the ribosome uses mRNA condon to bind with tRNA anticodon. Amino acids also come into play in the process, linking to one another to form a polypeptide chain. Once, the process is complete, the formation of protein is complete too!
Now getting to the point;
Where does Protein Synthesis take place?
Now that we have already established what Protein Synthesis is, let´s delve on where the process takes place. To answer the question without further explanation, Protein Synthesis simply takes place in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and in the nucleus. You should be aware that the rough endoplasmic reticulum also consists of ribosomes.
The cell´s DNA is deciphered in particular sections that contain the code for specific protein. The process of transcription occurs in the eukaryotic cells in the nucleus. After that, the translation process takes place in the cytoplasm; the ribosomes play an instrumental role in seeing fruition to the translation process. There is no nucleus to help distinguish and differentiate the transcription and translation processes in prokaryotes. Hence, when bacterial genes are transcribed, their transcripts can be translated almost instantaneously.
When Does Protein Synthesis take Place?
Protein synthesis generally takes place when strands of messenger RNA, that carry the code from the DNA, pass through ribosomes to transfer RNA with pre-attached amino acids (the building blocks of proteins). They, then, match up with the appropriate codon (3 base pair section of the mRNA). Amino acids also come into play in the process, linking to one another to form a polypeptide chain. Once, the process is complete, the formation of protein is complete too!
Why is Protein Synthesis Important?
Pretty much everything in our body consists of protein. It should be understood that the process of protein synthesis is of paramount importance for the body. All cells die without the process of protein synthesis and when that happens, you die too. There is simply no life without proteins. Let us elucidate furthermore. Proteins regulate almost everything carried out by cell´s functions. Cellular respiration, the process by which all cells synthesize ATP to use for energy, is made of Enzymes, which are primarily made of proteins. Muscular contractions in the body are only possible because of proteins. What does that mean? Well, without proteins in one´s body, one wouldn´t be able to lift a finger! The cells in the body wouldn´t be able to attach and hold onto themselves without the presence of proteins.
Without protein synthesis, it would perhaps be possible to form basic proteins by accident, but it would be nowhere enough to sustain life. Therefore, no form of life would exist without the process of protein synthesis!